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Getting ’em back

Engage Your AudienceWhat do you do when your audience begins to drift away from you? Of course, no audience will be riveted on every word you speak, but when they start fidgeting, murmuring, and checking their watches, you may be losing them.

And it can get worse. Conversations may begin breaking out. People may grow uncivil, and some may begin to leave.  This most often happens during the question-and-answer session, when things loosen up, and it may lead to a classic fail. Even at that point, though, it’s possible to get back in control.

You do it by leading.

Leadership comes with speaking. When you get up there you become the captain of the ship. It doesn’t matter whether you are talking to the union rank-and-file or the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The audience will take its cue from you.

So remind them who’s in charge, but don’t do it by raising your voice or demanding attention. Be quiet. If you are behind a podium, step away from it. Walk toward the audience. Remove your glasses, if you wear them. Do this calmly and deliberately. Say nothing. Gaze at them. You’ve now broken the pattern of speaking, which is unexpected and therefore attention-getting. Chances are that everyone will fall silent and every eye will find its way to you to see what you are about to do. They will suddenly feel like children in a classroom.

This moment—and you can only invoke it once—is now yours. Use it wisely. Remind the audience why your message is important to them. Tell them a story. Have something to say, and then keep the initiative by continuing to talk as you return to the podium.

The important thing is not to relinquish command. Audiences can mutiny, just as ship’s crews can, but they don’t do so lightly, and they won’t do so if you remember who you are and why you are there—and if the audience clearly sees that you are in charge and have something valuable to say.

Pitch vs. Presentation Decks

Cropped shot of a mature businessman working at his deskhttp://195.154.178.81/DATA/i_collage/pi/shoots/806194.jpgIt was more than 20 years ago that I first heard a set of presentation slides called a “deck.” Back in the ‘90s we stacked up the transparent acetate sheets used for presentation like a deck of cards. People today still call a slide presentation a “deck,” even though the slides are digital.  But when they talk about a “pitch deck” vs. a “presentation deck,” what’s the distinction there?

Although the terminology isn’t really settled, many today say a “pitch deck” is the set of slides a startup company sends to potential investors via email. The pitch deck, which can be read at leisure, gives the investor a chance to assess the startup and decide whether to go ahead and grant a meeting. The “presentation deck” is what you show when you get the meeting.

The two are very different.

A pitch deck must be self-explanatory. Because you won’t be there to take the audience through it, it must stand on its own. Even though the pitch deck may be a PowerPoint, Keynote, or some other commercial slide management application, readers can pause and re-read any part of it they want to, proceeding at their own pace and absorbing information at their own rate. You’re free to fill a pitch deck with written words and detailed information because it will be acting in the role of an introductory report.

But a presentation deck (also known as a demo-day presentation) should, by contrast, be chiefly visual. Since a human being will be standing there moving the slides along while speaking, the presentation deck should clarify and emphasize the spoken word. Never choke a presentation deck with extensive writing, complex spreadsheets, detailed screenshots, or involved charts. If you do, you’ll likely kill the presentation.

The point is that the slides we prepare aren’t always meant to be projected onto a screen. They may be used as a kind of written report. Before you create them, consider how you intend them to be viewed: individually, like the man above is doing; or by means of a speaker and a projected image. That goes a long way toward determining your content and slide design.

The public address system

Slider 1How much should you know about sound systems? There’s plenty to be learned, but maybe the first lesson is how they affect your delivery.

The kind of microphone you use—clip-on, hand-held, or podium-mounted—makes a big difference in your speaking dynamics.

A podium mic like this one would be my last choice—it ties you to one spot and forces you to swivel your head around the mic as you address different parts of the audience. It’s better than nothing, but it restricts your movement. I’d ask for something different.

If you’ll be using a hand-held mic, that’s better, because you control its position. Even so, you’ll want to practice with it. Some mics may be held a foot from your mouth. Others you practically have to “eat” to get amplification. In either case, you need to be conscious of where it’s pointed. If you swivel your head but don’t move the mic, then your voice will fade away and listeners will miss something. If you inadvertently point the mic at a sound speaker, the resulting feedback will disrupt your talk.

Lavalier or clip-on mics are probably best—once positioned, they stay positioned and give you hands-free movement. On the other hand, they generally require some cord pulling and adjusting to get you hooked up. A battery pack is required to transmit the signal, and this pack must be hooked onto a belt or a waist band. Most men don’t have to worry about that, but if you’re a woman, you’d better not plan to appear in a sheath dress. In either case, know how to switch the pack off when you leave the stage so you don’t inadvertently advertise a private conversation or—God forbid—a stop in the restroom.

Whatever you use, a sound check is mandatory. And when you are asked to do the mic check, just talk; don’t blow into the mic to see if it’s on. That’s an amateur move that can damage the mic and make enemies of the sound professionals you’re trying to work with.

It all goes back to one of the fundamental principles of speaking: rehearsal. Insist on rehearsing your talk with the very equipment you’ll be using in front of the audience, including the sound system. I’ve seen panel discussions ruined because of feedback squeals caused by the shortsighted refusal to rehearse. Those in charge tried changing the positions of the speakers, turning off one mic after another, and moving chairs around. When it was over, no one remembered a thing that was said. Don’t let that happen to you—rehearse!

Looking for work? Read this.

Business man making a presentation in front of whiteboard. Business executive delivering a presentation to his colleagues during meeting or in-house business training, explaining business plans.Although it was published just over a year ago, Job Outlook 2016, published by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, has something important to say to job seekers—especially those just out of school.

It’s this: know how to communicate verbally, inside and outside the organization. That ranks ahead of technical knowledge, the ability to plan, the ability to work on a team, the ability to analyze quantitative data—even above the ability to solve problems. The survey of 201 NACE employers asked that each skill on a list of 10 skills be given a value between 1 and 5. Verbal communication skills edged out every other category.

Now how can that be? Presentation Skills Expert Ellen Finkelstein suggests there are two reasons:

  • Communication is important for most of the other skills employers seek
  • Employers don’t see good verbal skills in their candidates today

“Believe me,” says Finkelstein, “if they saw great verbal communication skills they’d be worrying about something else.”

And that spells opportunity for the job seeker. If you master the skills of communication, you will have the edge on most other candidates. You will differentiate yourself. If you know how to make effective presentations—including presenting yourself effectively during in an interview—you will, in short, be distinctive.

Remember, marketers have for years practiced the art and science known as “positioning.” They determine where their brand exists in customers’ minds in comparison with competing brands. The goal of positioning is to make your brand distinctive—to make sure it’s nowhere close to anyone else’s brand.

So if most job candidates are lumped in the smart-but-can’t-communicate category, you need to be in the smart-and-can-communicate category.

You won’t have much company—and that’s the goal.

You may need a visual aid

Anatomy of a man showing back pain. Isolated on a black background.Anatomy of a man showing back pain. Isolated on a black background.Here’s a golden rule of presenting: never underestimate the power of a visual aid.

I recently served on a jury for a three-day trial. We spent four hours of that time watching videos of depositions from three different doctors. The plaintiff was asking compensation for back pain allegedly caused by an accident, so we heard lots of testimony about the state of his spine and back muscles.

Now, this was tough sledding for us civilians because none of the three medical experts used any illustration, 3D model, or photographs. When a doctor referred glibly to the T4 or the C7 vertebra, it was up to us on the jury to puzzle out what part of the spine he was talking about. Had he just pointed to the area on a diagram, it would have been easy to understand.

They are called “visual aids” for a reason; they aid your audience’s understanding. Imagine that your audience is hearing your line of reasoning for the very first time – because they are. Visual aids give your audience guideposts as they follow along.

Explaining a complicated subject without visual aids requires your audience to work very hard. Explaining a complicated subject by using visual aids = aha!

Show ’em you mean it

Cropped view of a man in a suit speaking into a microphone with his hands in fistsI recently had the honor of judging a university-level speech tournament. In one event, Persuasive Speaking, each of six finalists had 10 minutes to make a case about a cause. Judges looked for knowledge of the subject, a structured approach, documentation of the points made, and a good finish, often including a call to action.

Most of the speakers were good; they had all that. In fact, they were so good that when it was over I had a hard time ranking them.

Yet, something was missing from every one of those presentations—something important. These speakers, who were excellent in every other way, all had choreographed their gestures and movements. Here, I step to the left. Here, to the right. Here, I lift my hand. And all kept their hands at their sides when they were not actively gesturing. Thus, many of the gestures and movements they made seemed forced and false to my eyes.

My guess is that when you feel strongly about something, you don’t rest your hands at your sides. You probably hold them up about belt or waist level so you can easily lift them to punctuate your point, to signal the sharing of information, or to invite the listener to consider your position. You do this without thinking about it. You radiate energy. And the higher your hands, the more energy you show.

There’s a certain balancing act we do when we present in front of an audience, akin to what professional actors do when they perform on the stage. We are “in character” and yet conscious of the audience at the same time. We feel something for real, but we also remember that we are there to get something across. Our gestures are informed by our passion. But they are aimed toward those we’re addressing.

These competitors had the aim right, but not the passion behind it. No one will believe you really mean what you say if you look like you’ve been choreographed. You have to be comfortable enough inside yourself to feel what you ought to feel and be unafraid to show it. When you make a gesture, make it natural and bring it from the heart. That’s one way to show ‘em that you mean what you say.

Location, location, location

boardroomThere’s an important component of speaking logistics that can make or break your talk: knowing your location.

Where will you be presenting? With what kind of equipment? How will the audience be oriented? Where will you stand in relation to the screen? These details should be nailed down in advance of your actual presentation. If you are wise, you will go and nail them down yourself.

When you arrive at the venue, find out where the light switches are, where the electrical outlets are (will you need an extension cord?) how the room temperature is controlled, and whether there is Wi-Fi. Find out where the sun will be at the hour you present. Will it be pouring in through that south-facing window and landing on your screen? If so, you’d better know how to operate the blinds.

Check the lighting. How and where is it controlled? Is it just an on/off switch? Or will there be a dimmer? What quality of light is it? Strong fluorescent? Soft incandescent?  LED? Whatever it is, put an image up on the screen and see how the room lighting affects it. Adjust either the light or your visuals accordingly. And while you’re at it, make sure you are lit as you speak. Audiences must be able to see you.

Check the projector and connections. If you’re using your own equipment, that’s easy. But if you’re using an in-room projector, then you must test it. If you don’t, you may find when you begin your presentation that this projector’s color temperature is different from yours. You may find that everything looks yellow or magenta because a connecting cable has gone bad. Make a dry run using the very equipment you’ll be using and you can head off some awkward problems.

Finally, on the day of the presentation, bring a back-up projector. Bring every connector you have. Then get there early enough to switch out any equipment that’s malfunctioning.

My partners once walked boldly into a room in our State Office Building to check the venue for a presentation an important client would be giving the following day. They didn’t ask permission—they just went in and ran the slides through the in-room projector. They found that the mandatory corporate color used by the client was several shades too light when projected through in-room equipment.  They darkened the slides accordingly, making it perfect during the actual presentation.

There’s nothing like being prepared.

Stories make it memorable

storytelling-around-the-campfireThrough most of human history, we told each other stories. Stories set standards of behavior, warned us against danger, comforted us, gave us hope, and generally contributed to our tribal wisdom.

Then, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, business schools came into being. Those who attended business schools learned about the value of hard, quantitative data. They were taught that data provided the only reliable path to success, that all good business decisions were based on data.

Now, that was not a bad thing, for we need data to find our way to the truth of the matter. The problem was that in this world devoted exclusively to data, storytelling fell by the wayside. Any student who included a story in a paper was advised that this was less than professional. Storytelling may have had its point around the campfire, but it had no place in a presentation to the board. Business decisions had to be hard-headed.

But listen: storytelling has been rediscovered. About 1990, academic articles began appearing that pointed out how effective a story could be when it came to motivating an audience, driving home an important point, and reaching a decision.

Today if you Google “business storytelling” you’ll see a series of articles with titles like, “The Irresistible Power of Storytelling as a Strategic Business Tool” (Harvard Business Review), “Storytelling: The New Strategic Imperative of Business” (Forbes), and “From Bedtime to the Boardroom: Why Storytelling Matters in Business” (Entrepreneur).

Those who have studied the neurology of storytelling say that when we hear or see data, we light up only that part of the brain devoted to language processing. When we hear a story, though, we light up every part of the brain that involves us in the story—imagined sights, sounds, emotions . . . everything. That’s why we remember stories long after we would have forgotten the simple data points. Jennifer Aaker, professor of Marketing at the Stanford Graduate School of Business, estimates that your data becomes 22 times more memorable if it’s embedded in a story. Thus, business has come around to storytelling. It’s memorable and it motivates.

Crafting the Message Triangle

triangle-blue-equilateralIf you read the last post, you know about the power of three. Did you know you can use it to craft your entire presentation?

Many presenters struggle when they create their content. If they’re describing a study or project they’ve completed, for example, they may feel that they have to describe each step along the way. That gets tedious for the audience. It calls for more information than they can absorb. And there’s no need for it; your audience wants to be satisfied your effort was credible and understand its outcome, no more. Unless you are delivering a technical presentation, the rest is detail, and it is best left to a written report or an appendix.

So when you sit down to put your presentation together, ask yourself what three things you want your audience to remember when you’ve finished. That’s all they will take out of the room anyway. So what are the three most important things?

Now sketch a large equilateral triangle on a piece of paper and write one key point on each side of that triangle. Maybe your points are, 1. Our research was exhaustive; 2. The proposed solution has been used successfully by leaders in the industry; 3. Payback may be expected within three years.

Now, flesh those key points out with talking points. Under “exhaustive research,” you may note the industry standard for research, the number of sources you consulted, the credibility of those sources, and the number of work hours devoted to the task. Then perform a similar exercise with the other points.

When you’ve done this, you’ve finished the heavy lifting. Whenever you need to substantiate one of your key points, you can just reach up and take a talking point off the shelf.

And remember, repetition is your friend. That doesn’t mean saying the same thing five times in a row; it means coming back to your key points as you go along, like a singer comes back to a refrain in a song. Often, your talking points can accomplish that task, reminding listeners of a key point without actually using the same words over and over again.

There are several elements to good content, but this is one of the most basic: have three key points and keep coming back to them.  That will make your presentation memorable.

The Power of 3

Three FingersHave you ever noticed how many things come in threes? There are three blind mice, three little pigs, three Musketeers, and three Stooges. Donald Duck has three nephews, Huey, Dewey and Louie. Goldilocks meets three bears. King Lear has three daughters. Scrooge is visited by three ghosts. Children learn to stop, drop and roll. They learn their ABCs.

We seem to rely a lot on things that come in threes. We’ve been doing that for a long time. The Romans even used to have a saying, omne trium perfectum: all that is three is perfect.

There’s probably a reason they said so—items grouped in threes tend to stay with us. An attorney once observed that juries can remember as many as three points; if you give them more, they tend to forget them all.  If someone repeats a list of numbers to you, you’re more likely to remember them if you break them down by groups of three as you listen. Try to memorize them in one long sequence and you’ll probably fail.

Items grouped in threes are balanced.  They are ordered. They are simple. That’s why “three” has power. Speakers can use that power to good effect.

Try it. Tell your audience that there are three important things to remember about your subject and hold up three fingers to emphasize the number.  Then shift to one finger to indicate you’re about to describe the first one. If they’re taking notes, they’ll begin writing at that moment. They know three points are easy to nail. But if you tell your audience there are ten important things to remember while spreading all ten fingers out, you’ll get a much less enthusiastic response. There may still be some note takers, but there will be fewer of them and they will not be eager. We dread long lists. We like sets of three.

So consider fashioning your content around the number three. You’ll find your audience retains the three points your present long after your presentation is over.

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